Find the volume that the dry hydrogen would occupy at STP. Now the combined gas law is used, solving for , the volume of hydrogen at STP. Pressure and temperature at constant volume are directly proportional. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xmL2Pax4yUQ. Graham’s law can be understood by comparing two gases ( and ) at the same temperature, meaning the gases have the same kinetic energy. Mathematically, the direct relationship of Charles’s law can be represented by the following equation: As with Boyle’s law, is constant only for a given gas sample. 3.0 GENERAL This section provides an overview of how the human body responds to the varied conditions of diving. In 1984, she became the first female Medical Officer qualified in submarines, and in 1987, the first female saturation diving Medical Officer. Therefore, can have three different values. Use this law to perform calculations involving pressure-temperature relationships. The result has three significant figures. The ideality of a gas also depends on the strength and type of intermolecular attractive forces that exist between the particles. The Table below shows a summary of this and the other possible values of . Then the mass of the gas divided by the moles will give the molar mass. True/False: The tragedy at Lake Nyos in Cameroon, West Africa, was due to the sudden release of excessive amounts of carbon monoxide dissolved in the lake water. As the gas pushed out the water, it is pushing against the atmosphere, so the pressure inside is equal to the pressure outside. It is necessary to use Kelvin for the temperature and it is conventional to use the SI unit of liters for the volume. Volume is plotted on the -axis, with the corresponding pressure on the -axis. First, the molar mass of ammonia is calculated to be 17.04 g/mol. Since N has a molar mass of 14 g/mol and O has a molar mass of 16 g/mol, the formula N 2 O would produce the correct molar mass. A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of 425 mL when the pressure is equal to 387 kPa. At the same temperature and pressure, neon is more ideal than water vapor because neon’s atoms are only attracted by weak dispersion forces, while water vapor’s molecules are attracted by relatively stronger hydrogen bonds. Attractive intermolecular forces hold substances together and, therefore, these are important to make bulk material. This list details skills that dive students learn during scuba diving classes and open water certification. Use the ideal gas law to calculate parameters for ideal gases. And there is no oxygen present, so we couldn’t breathe there. A chemical reaction, which produces a gas, is performed. Sulfur dioxide is a by-product of many processes, both natural and human-made. We use and to stand for the initial pressure and initial volume of a gas. The temperature at which this change into the liquid state occurs varies for different gases. The direct relationship will only hold if the temperatures are expressed in Kelvin. The processes of gas diffusion and effusion are described. What is this pressure expressed in units of mm Hg? Notice that the line goes exactly toward the origin, meaning that as the absolute temperature of the gas approaches zero, its volume approaches zero. (HS – PS3-2) ... You are a SCUBA diving instructor creating an informational packet for your students. The partial pressure of a gas is the contribution that gas makes to the total pressure when the gas is part of a mixture. For a mixture of two substances, and , the mole fractions of each would be written as follows: If a mixture consists of 0.50 mol and 1.00 mol , then the mole fraction of would be . The produced gas is then collected and its mass and volume are determined. They influence the physical properties of the substance. Therefore, we have another funny like the Why does an increase in temperature increase the pressure? If the total pressure is 104 kPa, what is the partial pressure of each gas? Continued pressure increase results in the volume of the particles to become significant and the value of rises to greater than 1. A) the mixture of gases in a SCUBA diving tank B) a coin made from nickel and copper C) spring water purchased at a supermarket D) antifreeze in a car radiator E) none of the above 13) Which statement best explains the meaning of the phrase "like dissolves like"? These two gases are mixed together in an identical 20.0 liter vessel. For example, our atmosphere is composed of about 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with smaller amounts of several other gases making up the rest. The value of , the ideal gas constant, depends on the units chosen for pressure, temperature, and volume in the ideal gas equation. The Army also has a 'hard hat' diving program for engineer soldiers. The atmosphere of Venus is markedly different from that of Earth. Students learn basic diving, advanced rescue diving principles and advanced combat diving fundamentals. The volume of a gas increases as the Kelvin temperature increases. Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until the concentration is uniform. Calculate volumes of dry gases obtained after collecting over water. 12.1 Intermolecular Forces •Intermolecular forces are the attractive forces holding particles together in the condensed (liquid and solid) phases of matter •Result from coulombic attractions –Dependent on the magnitude of the charge –Dependent on distance between charges •Weaker than forces of ionic bonding •Involve partial charges The only way for the pressure (the force per unit area) to remain constant is for the gas to occupy a larger volume so that collisions become less frequent and our over a larger area Avogardro's Law: Volume and Amount (Moles) Volume is directly proportional to the number of … The atmospheric pressure is converted from kPa to mmHg in order to match units with the table. How do you determine partial pressure of a gas when given the mole fraction and the total pressure? First, rearrange the equation algebraically to solve for . Self-contained, closed-circuit oxygen system • Minimum Equipment: 1. A kilopascal multiplied by a liter is equal to the SI unit for energy, a joule (J). Intermolecular forces are the forces between neighboring molecules, atoms or any other particles. A decrease in the empty space means that the assumption that the volume of the particles themselves is negligible is less valid. What will be the new gas volume? Mole fraction is a useful quantity for analyzing gas mixtures in conjunction with Dalton’s law of partial pressures. The gas has a cooling effect when in the atmosphere by reflecting sunlight back away from the earth. where is the number of moles of gas and is a constant. Avogadro’s law is in evidence whenever you blow up a balloon. Intermolecular Forces • List the substances BaCl 2, H 2, CO, HF, and Ne in order of increasing boiling points. This is the value of that is to be used in the ideal gas equation when the pressure is given in kPa. The best scuba diving is up the road toward Manset, just before you cross a sort of natural dike, which is, in fact, the seawall for which this area is named. The combined gas law shows that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to volume and directly proportional to temperature. 018 - Intermolecular ForcesIn this video Paul Andersen explains how intermolecular forces differ from intramolecular forces. 4. Examples of intermolecular forces include the London dispersion force, dipole-dipole interaction, ion-dipole interaction, and van der Waals forces. Video of bromine diffusion: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_xDe004oTQ. As the gas is pumped through the coils, the pressure on the gas compresses it and raises the gas temperature. Whereas the container in a Charles’s law experiment is flexible, it is rigid in a Gay-Lussac’s law experiment. You can buy gauges that measure the pressure inside the tank to see how much is left. Swim fins or boots 6. Step 1: List the known quantities and solve the problem. Would HCl gas be more or less ideal than helium? 2-2 NOAA Diving Manual A.A one square inch column of air extending from sea level to the top of the atmosphere weighs 14.7 lbs. We usually cannot see gases, so we need ways to detect their movements indirectly. When the temperature of a sample of gas in a rigid container is increased, the pressure of the gas increases as well. As the bubbles rise to the surface the temperature will increase and the pressure decrease. A certain reaction occurs, producing an oxide of nitrogen as a gas. The mathematical relationship of Charles’s Law becomes: This equation can be used to calculate any one of the four quantities if the other three are known. Review the concepts at the link below and work the sample problems: http://www.kentchemistry.com/links/GasLaws/dalton.htm. True/False: The molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 15.0 grams of NaCl in 1000mL of water is 0.15M, The flashcards below were created by user. “We want to make people think more deeply about what’s happening in the underwater space,” Richardson says, calling for a network of informed and engaged divers who work to influence others “locally, socially and politically.” The grueling seven-week Combat Diver Qualification Course at the Special Forces Underwater Operations School in Key West, Fla., is neither for the weak of heart, or the idle mind. An intermolecular force is an attractive force that arises between the positive components (or protons) of one molecule and the negative components (or electrons) of another molecule. Everybody enjoys the smell and taste of freshly-baked bread. Because when the environment demands, only one thing matters; that your dive kit is designed Does the exhaust cycle compress the gases produced by ignition? Liquid A. As can be seen, deviations from an ideal gas occur. The Haber cycle reaction of gaseous nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia is a critical step in the production of fertilizer from ammonia. True/ False: As we climb a mountain to a higher altitude, we experience a pressure decrease. A) force applied per unit volume B) force applied per unit area C) area per unit force D) volume per unit force 5. Jan 7, 2021 - Explore Pat's board "Heavy Rubber Diving Gear" on Pinterest. A high-quality regulator is the most important piece of gear you can buy as a SCUBA diver because it allows you to breathe underwater. What is the role of the compression cycle? Rearrange the ideal gas law and solve for . What becomes more significant as the pressure increases? Diving Scuba diving requires either a strong knowledge of gas laws (by you or your guide). Another way to view it is that continued cooling the gas will eventually turn it into a liquid and a liquid is certainly not an ideal gas anymore (see liquid nitrogen in the Figure below ). A flask contains a mixture of 1.24 moles of hydrogen gas and 2.91 moles of oxygen gas. Since both changes are relatively small, the volume does not decrease dramatically. The Figure below shows a graph of plotted against pressure for 1 mol of a gas at three different temperatures – 200 K, 500 K, and 1000 K. An ideal gas would have a value of 1 for that ratio at all temperatures and pressures and the graph would simply be a horizontal line. International Dialogue on Underwater Munitions (IDUM), from Canada and The Netherlands, has started our Mobilization Phase in San Fransisco with Chris Welsh to prove-out out our equipment (manned and unmanned underwater vehicles) and operational procedures prior to departing for Hawaii. Seasoft Scuba (Watermark Scuba Inc.) – SeaSoft Scuba develops new, creative, and imaginative diving equipment that withstand the test of time and are loved by divers worldwide. You need to do a lab experiment where hydrogen gas is generated. True/False: Increasing the temperature increases the vaporization rate of a liquid because the excess energy is used to break covalent bonds. Special Forces SCUBA ODA If you would like to do Deep Sea diving try the Navy program. Check it out for review or preparation for in-the-water practice. An increase in temperature of a gas in a rigid container increases the pressure. Avogadro’s law shows that volume or pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas. B.A Use Boyle’s Law to calculate volume-pressure relationships. The number of moles of oxygen is far less than one mole, so the volume should be fairly small compared to molar volume (22.4 L/mol) since the pressure and temperature are reasonably close to standard. The combined gas law expresses the relationship between the pressure, volume, and absolute temperature of a fixed amount of gas. Calculate the new pressure of the gas. Infiltration by air, land, and sea are all viable options evaluated by ARSOF units during mission planning. Fortunately, Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Gay-Lussac’s laws can all be easily derived from the combined gas law. A balloon has been filled to a volume of 1.90 L with 0.0920 mol of helium gas. If more gas is added to a rigid container, the gas pressure increases. A graph of the data in the table further illustrates the inverse relationship nature of Boyle’s Law (see Figure below ). True/False: A sugar solution is an example of a weak electrolyte solution. True/False: As you increase temperature, you increase the average energy of the gas particles. The gas is allowed to expand into a 1.75 L container. The combined gas law shows the relationships among temperature, volume, and pressure. In contrast, intramolecular forces act within molecules. If the overall atmospheric pressure is 1.00 atm, then the pressure of just the nitrogen in the air is 0.78 atm. Since ammonia has a smaller molar mass than hydrogen chloride, the velocity of its molecules is greater and the velocity ratio is larger than 1. The partial pressure of a gas is indicated by a with a subscript that is the symbol or formula of that gas. Why does an increase in the number of molecules increase the pressure? Gases that are produced in laboratory experiments are often collected by a technique called water displacement (see Figure below ). For this reason, gases can also be compressed so that a relatively large amount of gas can be forced into a small container. Scuba diving takes knowledge of basic skills and techniques before you attempt that first dive (or a first dive after a long time). Assume the gas is ideal. The French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) discovered the relationship between the pressure of a gas and its absolute temperature. If the particles are moving at slower speeds, the attractive forces between them are more prominent. True/False: The shapes of protein molecules are determined by intermolecular forces. Next, assume exactly 1 mol of ammonia and calculate the volume that such an amount would occupy at the given temperature and pressure. Use Avogadro’s law to solve for the final volume. In order to use the ideal gas law, the number of moles of O 2 must be found from the given mass and the molar mass. For a combined gas law problem, only the amount of gas is held constant. Answer questions and perform calculations of problems at the following link: http://www.mybookezz.com/ebook.php?u=aHR0cDovL2dvLmhydy5jb20vcmVzb3VyY2VzL2dvX3NjL21jL0hDMlNSMTEzLlBERgpTZWN0aW9uIDM=. This is due to intermolecular forces, not intramolecular forces. Because of the elevated temperature and reduced pressure compared to STP, the resulting volume is larger than 22.4 L. Solve the problems on the worksheet at this site: http://misterguch.brinkster.net/PRA036.pdf. Why does the pressure drop when you increase the volume? The pressure of a gas decreases as the volume increases, making Boyle’s law an inverse relationship. Since neither of those conditions can be true, there is no such thing as an ideal gas. Sherwood Scuba – SHERWOOD SCUBA is one of the world’s leading dive equipment manufacturers supplying dive operations and resorts around the world. Now substitute the known quantities into the equation and solve. The School is at the Navy base at Panama City Beach, FL. The mathematical expression of Avogadro’s law is. Dalton’s law can be used to calculate the amount of the desired gas by subtracting the contribution of the water vapor. Give the common units for pressure. Frank Allen, who was instrumental in the development of scuba-diving as an adventurous training (AT) activity for members of Britain’s armed forces, died on 30 December. Pulmonary edema associated with scuba diving : case reports and review. Courtesy of US Navy Photographer’s Mate 2nd Class Damon J. Moritz. Here is the balanced equation for the combustion of ethanol. But how can you get a barometer in there? The calculated molar mass gives a reasonable formula for dinitrogen monoxide. Gases will compress more easily that solids or liquids because here is so much space between the gas molecules. Intermolecular forces are weaker than intramolecular forces. 1 The proponency for waterborne operations training, either surface or sub-surface, has been assigned to Special Forces since 1952. Courtesy of NOAA Photo Library, NOAA Central Library; OAR/ERL/National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). These are simultaneously plugged into either end of a long glass tube. When a person opens a bottle of perfume in one corner of a large room, it doesn’t take very long for the scent to spread throughout the entire room. Diving physics, explained in the previous chapter, does not direct-ly determine how the body reacts to forces on it. If we want to dive with a maximum oxygen partial pressure of 1.4 bar the process of finding the “right” blend of nitrox simply requires us to divide 1.4 by 3.6, which equals 38.8, and that is the blend of nitrox (the percentage of oxygen) that would work for our dive! Basically, it all comes down to pressure. One half of the weight is contained in the first 18,000 ft. (5,486 m or 3 1/2 miles) of the column. http://www.concord.org/~ddamelin/chemsite/g_gasses/handouts/Boyle_Problems.pdf. Why is there no change in volume when pressure is applied to liquids and solids? To do so, the gas would need to completely abide by the kinetic-molecular theory. Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba), which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater. If you need some help shopping, this article is for you. True/False: Pressure is calculated by P=, True/False: The volume of 9.00 grams of water vapor at STP is 11.2L. The The moles of ethanol is now substituted into to solve for the volume. Don't be offended, but unless you have undergone technical scuba training, you probably have poor trim. Step 1: List the known quantities and plan the problem. In that case, it can be said that . Solids essentially do not diffuse. It does not cushion the rim of the wheel and creates a very uncomfortable ride. Gases whose attractive forces are weak are more ideal than those with strong attractive forces. Do you want to look like a sleek diving ninja? To this point, we have examined the relationships between any two of the variables of , , and , while the third variable is held constant. Define the important gas laws that are related to SCUBA diving, give the mathematical formula of the law, and include a graph that represents the relationship between the two variables in the law. In order to solve a problem, it is necessary to know the vapor pressure of water at the temperature of the reaction (see Table below). Setting the kinetic energies of the two gases equal to one another gives: The equation can be rearranged to solve for the ratio of the velocity of gas to the velocity of gas . Argon makes up about 0.93% of our atmosphere. True/False: The solubility of solids in water generally increases with increasing temperature. Under what conditions then, do gases behave least ideally? As the pressure begins to rise, the attractive forces cause the volume of the gas to be less than expected and the value of drops under 1. A number of ships have been deliberately sunk off the coast, to form an artificial reef, known as the Camp Bay Conservation Project and includes a cable layer sunk alongside a barge, at approximately 15m … (2)Department of Anaesthesiology, Academic Medical CenterAmsterdam, Netherlands. Describe and compare intramolecular and intermolecular forces. Keep your friends close and your anemones closer” For the last two spaces in our look at scuba diving we felt like we had to cover both our favorite types of quotes. Compare the structures and properties of different types of solids. For example, consider a situation where a change occurs in the volume and pressure of a gas while the temperature is being held constant. True/False: For all gas law calculations, the temperature must be in kelvins. MK-21 Helmet 2. Surface Courtesy of J. D. Griggs, US Geological Survey. The third column is the constant for this particular data set and is always equal to the volume divided by the Kelvin temperature. If 0.0210 mol of additional helium is added to the balloon while the temperature and pressure are held constant, what is the new volume of the balloon? The value that corresponds to a pressure in atm was chosen for this problem. The modern refrigerator takes advantage of the gas laws to remove heat from a system. Using pure oxygen in scuba diving tanks is a good method of preventing the nitrogen bends. Mole fraction is the ratio of moles of one substance in a mixture to the total number of moles of all substances. Before using the ideal gas law, it is necessary to write and balance the chemical equation. Both the increase in pressure and the decrease in temperature cause the volume of the gas sample to decrease. The result has three significant figures because of the values for and . Read the material on the link below and do the practice problems: http://www.kentchemistry.com/links/GasLaws/GrahamsLaw.htm, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_xDe004oTQ, http://www.flickr.com/photos/imphotography/3754144111/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/spine/309730216/, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Basketball_game.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nssl0020.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Robert_Boyle_0001.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navy_baking_bread.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FEMA_-_22585_-_Photograph_by_Robert_Kaufmann_taken_on_02-27-2006_in_Louisiana.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joseph_louis_gay-lussac.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frigorifero_Ignis_componenti.JPG, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fietspomp.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gas_cylinder_ammonia.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HighFlyer_Hamburg02.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Isomere_Ethanol_Dimethylether.png, http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrec/2699842079/, http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia00124, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pahoeoe_fountain_sharpen.jpg, http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Chemistry-Concepts-Intermediate/, CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Similarly, the mole fraction of would be . “Scuba Diving. For example, we will determine the density of ammonia gas (NH 3 ) at 0.913 atm and 20°C, assuming the ammonia is ideal. Dimethylether (CH 3 OCH 3 ) has the same number of carbons, hydrogens, and oxygens, but boils at a much lower temperature (-25°C). Intermolecular Forces vs Intra-molecular Forces . The end-result is an enjoyable treat, especially when covered with melted butter. Use of the mole fraction allows calculation to be made for mixtures of gases. A balloon is filled to a volume of 2.20 L at a temperature of 22°C. True/False: Pressure depends on how many gas particles are in a container. CK-12 Foundation – Wade Baxter. True/False: Oil would be considered a nonvolatile liquid while gasoline would be considered volatile. Step 1: List the known quantities and plan the problem . This is a reasonable assumption for conventional diving depths, but as gas molecules are compressed closer together they begin to exert significant intermolecular forces and the gas becomes less compressible. The ideal gas law is used to calculate stoichiometry problems for gases. So you need to take the air temperature into account when you decide whether or not to refill the tank before your next cook-out. The hydrogen is slightly less than one third of the mixture, so it exerts slightly less than one third of the total pressure. As was the case for gaseous substances, the kinetic molecular theory may be used to explain the behavior of solids and liquids. This empirical law was observed by John Dalton in 1801 and published in 1802. True/False: Viscosity increases with increased intermolecular force because the molecules attract each other strongly which hinders the flow. Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. The total pressure in a system is equal to the sums of the partial pressures of the gases present. This heat is then dissipated through the coils into the outside air. The partial pressure of nitrogen is represented by . Then you need to learn proper trim, or body position in the water. Alpha Dive Centre joined forces this week with the Seadog family in Saldanha! Note that the final number of moles has to be calculated by adding the original number of moles to the moles of added helium. What assumption are we making about the gases involved? Use Gay-Lussac’s law to solve for the unknown pressure . Scottish chemist Thomas Graham (1805-1869) studied the rates of effusion and diffusion of gases. A) A solvent will easily dissolve a solute of similar mass. Explain Gay-Lussac’s Law in terms of the kinetic-molecular theory. Since nitrogen makes up 78% of the gas particles in a given sample of air, it exerts 78% of the pressure. Helium has long been used in balloons and blimps. Now we use and to stand for the initial volume and temperature of a gas, while and stand for the final volume and temperature. The temperature is 20°C and the atmospheric pressure is 98.60 kPa. A) mmHg, atm, kPa B) mmH2O, atm, Pa C) mmH2O atm, kPa D) mmHg, atm, liters 6. In order to calculate the yield of gas, you have to know the pressure inside the tube where the gas is collected. 3OH (aq), which kind of intermolecular forces are formed between the CH 3OH and water molecules? It may seem challenging to remember all the different gas laws introduced so far. A background to SCUBA diving (definitions, necessary equipment, important statistics (include at least 3), how does SCUBA work, gases present in SCUBA tanks, etc.) False However, situations arise where all three variables change. What type of fins do you swim with? We can have two compounds with the same number of atoms and yet they act very differently. A related process to diffusion is the effusion. True/False: Tap water contains dissolved nitrogen and oxygen. Gases are most ideal at high temperature and low pressure. The reaction flask is fitted with rubber tubing which is then fed under the bottle of water. True/False: If the number of gas particles is halved, the volume of the gas will be halved given that the temperature and pressure do not change. Use Charles’s law to solve for the unknown volume . Work on the problems found at the web site below: http://www.chemteam.info/GasLaw/WS-Gay-Lussac.html. Because the gas is collected over water, it is not pure but is mixed with vapor from the evaporation of the water. When this data is graphed, the result is a straight line, indicative of a direct relationship, shown in Figure below . Types of forces are discussed in 12.6 Part 3 of 3 - 10.0/ 10.0 Points Question 11 of 12 5.0/ 5.0 Points `Calculate the amount of water (M.W. The vapors of each travel down the tube at different rates. The sample problem illustrates the use of Dalton’s law when a gas is collected over water. ). Diving in South Compressed gas in the coils (see above) is allowed to expand. So, each partial pressure will be: The partial pressures of each gas in the mixture don’t change since they were mixed into the same size vessel and the temperature was not changed. by Andy Davis. 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Concentration Kinetics and Equilibrium Nylon-Braided Regulator Hose diving Emergency a cold day Jan 7, 2021 - Pat... Of dry gases obtained after collecting over water an excess of the container gases do matter! First 18,000 ft. ( 5,486 m or 3 1/2 miles ) of the hydrogen is found by subtraction food. The pressures of the hydrogen and helium: the volume, and Ne in order of boiling. Behave ideally under conditions of low pressure or high temperature there no change intermolecular forces scuba diving volume pressure... Of 600 mmHg relationship nature of Boyle ’ s law is used to refer to an atom, molecule or! The combining gases temperature cause the volume of its container the units cancel correctly, leaving a volume 5.0! And creates a very uncomfortable ride structures and properties of different types of solids in water increases with increased force. Diffuse rather quickly, liquids diffuse much more slowly atm at a constant pressure will produce and increase temperature. 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